نکات اساسی در بهره‌ برداری و نگهداشت پمپ‌ های هرمتیک

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نکات اساسی در بهره ‌برداری و نگهداشت پمپ ‌های هرمتیک



پمپ‌ های هرمتیک (HERMETIC) از نوع پمپ‌های سانتریفیوژ هستند که برای خنک‌سازی قسمت متحرک، روانکاری اسلاید بیرینگ‌ها و بالانس هیدرولیکی نیروی محوری، قسمتی از جریان اصلی سیال پمپاژ شده در روتور جریان پیدا می‌کند. شفت این پمپ تو خالی بوده و مسیر برگشت جریان از درون شفت صورت می‌گیرد. این جریان از طریق نازل روی شفت در بین دو ایمپلر به جریان اصلی می‌پیوندد. این پمپ‌ها به دلیل کارایی بالایی که دارند کاربرد قابل‌توجهی در صنعت دارند؛ به‌عنوان مثال در صنایع شیمیایی که نیاز به سردسازی آنی وجود دارد و سایر سیستم‌های سردسازی که از کمپرسور استفاده می‌کنند نمی‌توانند سرعت بالایی برای سردسازی تأمین کنند، پمپ‌ های هرمتیک بهترین گزینه هستند. در این مقاله سعی شده است به نکات اساسی در بهره برداری و نگهداشت پمپ های هرمتیک پرداخته شود.



نکات مهم در راه‌اندازی (Start Up) پمپ ‌های هرمتیک

  1. اتصال الکتریکی صحیح پمپ در زمان راه‌اندازی تعیین‌کننده جهت حرکت پمپ می‌باشد (درصورتی‌که پمپ سه‌فاز باشد با تغییر فاز می‌توان جهت حرکت پمپ را تغییر داد). جهت حرکت پمپ باید در جهت فلش نشان‌داده‌شده بر روی پمپ (عموماً فلنج پمپ) باشد. برای اطمینان از اتصال صحیح پمپ، یک گیج فشار در خروجی پمپ قرار دهید. اگر جهت چرخش صحیح باشد باید خیلی سریع هد دهش (فشار) به مقدار 40 تا 50 درصد خود برسد.
  2. هواگیری در زمان راه‌اندازی در این نوع پمپ‌ها بسیار مهم است. فشار مثبت در مسیر مکش باید وجود داشته باشد. اگر پمپ صدای زیادی داشته باشد، هواگیری خوب انجام نشده است. در زمان راه‌اندازی قسمت مکش، لوله فشار و محفظه رتور باید از مایع پر شده باشد تا هوای موجود در این قسمت‌ها خارج شود.
  3. پمپ در هیچ شرایطی نباید به‌صورت خشک (بدون سیال) کار کند. خشک کار کردن پمپ باعث آسیب به اسلاید رینگ (Slide Ring) و تراست رینگ‌ها (Trust Ring) می‌شود.
  4. در صورت گرم و یا سرد شدن پمپ، با باز شدن Stop Valve جریان در پمپ تنظیم می‌شود تا به دمای مورد نظر در موتور برسید. دمای کارکرد را می‌توان از طریق تجهیزات کنترل دما تنظیم کرد.
  5. برای عملکرد مناسب در این نوع پمپ‌ها عملیات Priming و Venting باید به‌صورت مناسب انجام گیرد. در مدل CAM هواگیری مستقیماً در خط دهش (فشار) انجام می‌گیرد. برای هواگیری در این مدل بهتر است قبل از راه‌اندازی، Stop Valve نصب شده در خط دهش (فشار) یک بار باز شود و سپس بسته شود.
  6. این پمپ‌ها ضد انفجار هستند (به دلیل سیل بودن محفظه سیم‌پیچی که به آن‌ها CANNED TYPE می‌گویند)، لذا در پوش کانکتور الکتریکی باید قبل از استارت موتور سیل و کاملاً بسته شده باشد.


دستورالعمل بازرسی و نگهداشت پمپ‌ های هرمتیک

برای عملکرد قابل‌ اطمینان پمپ‌های هرمتیک می‌بایست طی دوره‌های زمانی مشخص چک و بررسی لازم بر روی پمپ انجام شود. نکاتی که در مورد این نوع پمپ‌ها باید در نظر گرفته شود، شامل موارد ذیل است:

  1. از خاموش و روشن کردن مکرر پمپ خودداری شود. هرچه تعداد استاپ و استارت مجدد کم باشد عمر مفید پمپ بیشتر خواهد شد.
  2. کارکرد پمپ نرم و بدون لرزش است. سرو صدای زیاد و لرزش نشان از عملکرد نادرست پمپ می‌باشد.
  3. پمپ هرگز نباید خشک کار کند. از سمت دیگر درصورتی‌که گیت ولو خط دهش (فشار) بسته است، پمپ نباید بیشتر از مدت‌زمان مشخص شده کار کند.
  4. برای کارکرد مناسب، پمپ باید در دبی و هد دهش (فشار) مجاز کار کند. حداکثر و حداقل ظرفیت دبی پمپ و هد دهش (فشار) در مشخصات فنی پمپ بیان شده است.
  5. پارامترهای الکتریکی پمپ در مشخصات فنی و پلاک پمپ بیان شده است. توجه شود که مقدار جریان مصرفی در حداکثر دبی برابر یا کمتر از جریان نامی باشد.
  6. اطمینان حاصل شود که دمای اندازه‌گیری شده توسط پراب دما در سمت موتور از دمای خاموشی مشخص شده در مشخصات فنی بیشتر نباشد.
  7. برای جلوگیری از عمل کاویتاسیون در پمپ برای پمپاژ سیال سبک، دبی در خط تغذیه باید حداقل باشد. نحوه محاسبه این دبی (emin) در فایل Operating Manual پمپ بیان شده است.
  8. برای پاک‌سازی پمپ می‌توان از آب یا حلال مناسب (با فشار) استفاده کرد.
  9. اگر پمپ قرار است برای مدت طولانی متوقف شود، توصیه می‌شود که مواد داخل پمپ (با تزریق سیال شستشو) تخلیه شود.
  10. در مورد پمپ‌های تعمیری بهتر است که بعد از استارت با دوربین‌های ترموگرافی و دستگاه اولتراسونیک وضعیت پمپ رو از نظر توزیع دما و لرزش‌های … چک کرد.

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