نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP ؛ رمز آزادسازی سرمایه میلیاردی راکد در انبار

دسامبر 20, 1398296
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نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP ؛ رمز آزادسازی سرمایه میلیاردی راکد در انبار



جمع شدن کالاها در انبار و راکد ماندن سرمایه‌های هنگفت سازمان که می‌‌تواند در فرصت‌های دیگری سرمایه‌گذاری شود یا مواجه با کمبود موجودی، شرایط دشواری را برای سازمان پدید خواهد آورد. برای ایجاد یک سیستم کنترل موجودی کارا و اجتناب از موجودی‌های مازاد یا کسری موجودی باید زمان مناسب سفارش کالا در شرایط متفاوت تعیین گردد. این عامل نقش مهمی در ساختار سفارش‌ها دارد و نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP نامیده می‌شود. فواصل زمانی تحویل، سطح خدمات مورد نظر و سرعت مصرف متغیرهای تأثیرگذار بر این مقدار خواهند بود که باید به نحو صحیح تعیین شوند. برای اطلاعات بیشتر در رابطه با مدیریت انبار و قطعات یدکی کلیک کنید.


مدیریت موجودی یکی از وظایف مهم کسب و کار است!

نسبت میزان کل ساعات کار نگهداشت به هزینه کل مواد به کار رفته در نگهداشت، تعمیر و تعمیرات اساسی (MRO) که در بازه زمانی معین استفاده شده‌‌اند، دارای تغییرات اندکی است. به بیان دیگر، وجود قطعات برای انجام مؤثر کار ضروری است. نبود قطعه به معنای عدم دستیابی به کیفیت استاندارد در انجام کار است. این موضوع باعث می‌شود که مدیریت مواد لازم برای MRO به یکی از شرکای کلیدی واحد نگهداشت بدل شود. به منظور برخورداری از برنامه تعمیراتی کامل و جامع، سطح دسترسی به قطعات یدکی در یک بازه زمانی مشخص بسیار ضروری است. فقدان مواد و قطعات یدکی حیاتی و مهم در زمان تعمیرات، ضربه بزرگی به زمان دردسترس برای تولید و در نتیجه شاخص اثربخشی کلی تجهیزات (OEE) خواهد زد. نکته قابل تأمل، کاهش 33 درصد زمان توقفات ناشی از خرابی تجهیزات با محاسبه نقطه سفارش بهینه است.

برنامه مدیریت مواد نگهداشت دو هدف اصلی دارد:

کمینه ‌سازی ارزش پولی موجودی انبار؛ و

تأمین تمام مواد لازم برای فعالیت کارخانه.

این دو هدف ظاهراً در تناقض با یکدیگر هستند. با مدنظر قرار دادن هدف اول به تنهایی، خالی کردن انبار بهترین حالت خواهد بود، که این امر می‌تواند سازمان را با کمبود کالا در مواقع اضطراری مواجه سازد. اگر تنها هدف دوم مدنظر قرار گیرد و به شیوه‌ای افراطی قطعات انبار شوند، سرمایه‌های هنگفتی در انبار راکد خواهد ماند و فرصت‌های سرمایه‌ گذاری از دست خواهد رفت. برای ایجاد شرایط بهینه، به ایجاد تعادل میان این دو نیاز خواهد بود. به بیانی دیگر، ارزش پولی موجودی را باید با هزینه در دسترس نبودن قطعات در هنگام نیاز مقایسه کرد. محاسبه نقطه سفارش مجدد، یکی از روش‌هایی است که کمینه‌ سازی ارزش پولی موجودی‌ها را ضمن در دسترس بودن تمام مواد و قطعات ضروری تحقق می‌‌بخشد.


چگونه نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکیROP را محاسبه کنیم؟



دلیل محاسبه نقطه سفارش مجدد تشخیص زمانی است که مقدار یک محصول خاص به حدی کاهش یافته است که باید درخواستی به تأمین کننده محصول ارائه شود. به عبارتی دیگر، نقطه سفارش بهینه حداقل مقداری است که می‌تواند تا زمان رسیدن سفارش مجدد برای ذخیره سازی مجدد سطح موجودی بعدی دوام داشته باشد. گرچه، فرض بر ثابت ماندن تقاضا و زمان انتقال است. اما در واقعیت، حمل و نقل‌‌ها با تأخیر انجام شده یا تغییری در تقاضا به وجود خواهد آمد. از این رو، ایجاد مقدار اضافه‌ای از موجودی (که با نام ذخیره احتیاطی شناخته می‌شود) به منظور مقابله با این رخدادها، اقدام زیرکانه‌ای خواهد بود. فرمول محاسبه نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP به صورت زیر است:



تقاضا در طول زمان انتظار – ارسال کالا فوری نیست!

موجودی جدید بلافاصله بعد از سفارش به دست مصرف‌کننده نخواهد رسید. حتی اگر محصولات آماده‌ی فروش یا تحویل باشند، بسته‌بندی سفارش نیز برای تأمین‌کننده زمان‌بر خواهد بود و حتی زمان بیشتری برای ارسال آن نیاز خواهد بود. این زمان انتظار همان چیزی است که به عنوان “Lead Time” شناخته می‌شود.


ذخیره احتیاطی – وقتی تصورات درست از آب در نمی آید!

گاهی اوقات، اتفاقات غیر منتظره‌ای رخ می‌دهد. این امر می‌تواند در قالب افزایش ناگهانی تقاضا، یا توقفات ناخواسته در شرکت تأمین‌کننده و … پدیدار شود. اینجا جایی است که ذخیره احتیاطی اهمیت می‌یابد. ذخیره احتیاطی، به عنوان آخرین دفاع در برابر این چنین حوادث غیرقابل پیش بینی به کار گرفته می‌شود. ذخیره احتیاطی برای یک روز بارانی است که ممکن است هرگز نیاید!

چه مقدار موجودی به عنوان ذخیره نگهداری شود؟



مراحل فرآیند محاسبه نقطه سفارش مجدد:

تعیین نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP مستلزم اتخاذ گام‌های زیر است:

تعیین محدوده مورد نظر؛

استخراج داده‌ها و اطلاعات مورد نیاز؛

صحت‌سنجی داده‌های جمع آوری شده؛

تخمین داده‌های مورد نیاز با روش‌های علمی در صورت عدم دسترسی به آن‌ها ؛ و

انجام محاسبات مورد نیاز و تعیین پارامترهای مؤثر در نقطه سفارش بهینه انبار قطعه یدکی ROP .


قسمت اعظم سرمایه در گردش سازمان‌ها عمدتاً در انبارها تجمع می‌یابد و بیشترین سهم بودجه سالیانه مربوط به بخش تدارکات است. خریدهای به موقع امری ظریف، تخصصی است که بدون درک صحیح و شناخت کافی از ماهیت کالاهای خریداری شده و انبار شده حاصل نخواهد شد. اکتفا به تجربیات گذشته در خصوص تعیین نقطه سفارش مجدد امری نامعقول به نظر می‌رسد. به منظور دستیابی به شرایط بهینه در انبار توصیه می‌کنیم که از روش علمی مذکور برای محاسبه بهترین زمان سفارش استفاده نمایید.


مطالب مرتبط

مدیریت انبار و قطعات یدکی
مدیریت انبار و قطعات یدکی
کتاب مدیریت انبار و قطعات یدکی
کتاب مدیریت انبار و قطعات یدکی

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