نقش مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) در چرخهٔ عمر دارایی

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نقش مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) در چرخهٔ عمر دارایی


قبل از بحث دربارهٔ تعاملات بین مؤلفه‌های چرخهٔ عمر دارایی‌ها و یکپارچگی و اطمینان‌پذیری‌شان بهتر است چند تعریف پایه ارائه شود. در سال ۲۰۰۷، سازمان بهداشت و ایمنی انگلستان یکپارچگی دارایی را این‌گونه تعریف کرد: «توانایی دارایی‌ها در انجام مؤثر و کارامد عملکرد مورد نیازشان ضمن حفظ سلامت، ایمنی و محیط زیست.» مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی نیز توسط همین سازمان اینگونه تعریف می شود: «روشی برای اطمینان از این‌که کارکنان، سیستم‌ها، فرایندها و منابع، که یکپارچگی را فراهم می‌سازند، در طول کل چرخهٔ عمر دارایی آماده، در حال استفاده و متناسب با هدف هستند.» برنامهٔ مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) تضمین می کند که یکپارچگی مکانیکی ارزیابی شده است و در طول کل چرخهٔ عمر دارایی حفظ می‌شود.

چرخهٔ عمر دارایی شامل مؤلفه‌های زیر است: طراحی، ساخت، راه‌اندازی، بهره‌برداری، اصلاحات و از رده خارج کردن. هر یک از  مؤلفه ها یکپارچگی دارایی را تضمین می‌کند و اصول یکپارچگی کنترل‌کنندهٔ طراحی و پیاده‌سازی هر مرحله است. چشم‌انداز دستیابی به یکپارچگی مؤثر دارایی از طریق شش مرحلهٔ حیاتی چرخهٔ عمر، مستلزم بکارگیری مجموعه‌ای از ابزارها است که در ادامه به اختصار معرفی می شوند.

ابزارهای مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) در مرحله طراحی

مدیریت و بهینه‌سازی یکپارچگی دارایی در اولین مرحلهٔ از چرخهٔ عمر دارایی یعنی طراحی شروع می‌شود. شروع در مرحلهٔ طراحی مؤثرترین روش در بهبود یکپارچگی آتی دارایی‌ها و کاهش ریسک‌های کلی در عمر مفید دارایی‌ها است. مدیریت و بهبود یکپارچگی دارایی‌ها در مرحلهٔ طراحی با استفاده از استانداردها و ارزیابی‌های کیفی، خیلی مؤثرتر و کارامدتر از انجام آن در مراحل بعدی چرخه عمر است. نمونه‌های ارزیابی‌های مرحلهٔ طراحی شامل موارد زیر می‌شود:

مطالعات انتخاب مواد با استفاده از دستورالعمل‌های طراحی، استانداردها و شیوه‌های توصیه‌شده برای ساخت.

مطالعات خواص سیالات برای کمک به انتخاب مواد.

مطالعات سایش و لرزش‌های سیستم لوله‌کشی باید برای پیکربندی فیزیکی و هندسهٔ سیستم‌های لوله‌کشی در نظر گرفته شود که می‌تواند مشکلات بالقوهٔ لرزش را کاهش دهد.

مد نظر قرار دادن سیستم مدیریت یکپارچگی تجهیزات تحت فشار.

مدیریت یکپارچگی خطوط لوله.

راهبرد مدیریت یکپارچگی زیر دریا. برنامه بازرسی و نگهداری و تعمیرات.

مدیریت یکپارچگی ناهنجاری‌ها، نواقص و تعمیرات.

ارزیابی ریسک ایمنی.

مطالعات کنترل خوردگی.

کاهش ریسک و بهبود یکپارچگی دارایی در طول مرحلهٔ بهره‌برداری به شیوه‌ها و آموزش محدود می‌شود، که از پرداختن به این مسائل بالقوه در طول مرحلهٔ طراحی به جای اعمال راه‌حل‌ها و جایگزین‌های مهندسی گران‌قیمت در طول بهره‌برداری تأثیر خیلی کمتری دارد.

مد نظر قرار دادن اصول یکپارچگی در مرحلهٔ طراحی می‌تواند به کاهش یا حتی حذف مشکلات معین بازرسی و بهبود عملکرد تجهیزات کمک کند، که تأثیر مثبتی روی هزینهٔ کلی عملیات در سراسر چرخهٔ عمر دارایی خواهد داشت.

ابزارهای مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) در مرحله ساخت

در مرحلهٔ ساخت، ریسک‌ها و مسائل یکپارچگی باید از طریق سیاست، دستورالعمل‌ها، استانداردها، راهبردها و مشخصات یکپارچگی مدیریت شوند. قابل ذکر است که مسائل موجود از مرحلهٔ طراحی ممکن است تأثیری منفی بر اجراپذیری مرحلهٔ ساخت داشته باشند. برای اطمینان از اینکه دارایی تولیدشده مشخصات طراحی را برآورده کرده و قابلیت اطمینان مورد انتظار را ارائه می کند، فرایند QA/QC ضروری است.

بازرسی مناسب تجهیزات به‌عنوان بخشی از راه‌اندازی در این مرحله حیاتی است، زیرا پایبندی به دستورالعمل‌ها و استانداردهای مربوط را تضمین می‌کند و همچنین اطمینان حاصل می‌کند که تجهیزات برای خدمات عملیاتی تناسب دارند. این بازرسی‌ها باید تأیید کنند که همهٔ داده‌های عملیاتی لازم جمع‌آوری شده‌اند و سیستم عملیات از روز اول مد نظر قرار گرفته است.

ابزارهای مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) در مرحله بهره برداری

هدف مرحله بهره برداری حصول اطمینان از این است که دارایی مورد نظر، با وجود محدودیت‌های طراحی، به‌طور مؤثر و ایمن عمل می‌کند. همان‌طور که در بخش مرحلهٔ طراحی توضیح داده شد، تلاش برای بهبود یکپارچگی تجهیزات در مرحلهٔ عملیات (بهره‌برداری) اغلب محدود است، که باعث تأثیرگذاری کمتر این فرایند می‌شود. ایجاد نوعی سیستم پشتیبانی عملیاتی، مثل شیوه‌های عملیاتی تحت کنترل محدودیت‌های طراحی، منجر به بهبود در فرهنگ ایمنی و فرایند عملیاتی می‌شود که سازمان را قادر به تصمیم‌گیری‌های بهتر می‌کند. این‌گونه به‌طور مستقیم بر یکپارچگی و اطمینان‌پذیری دارایی‌های عملیاتی تأثیر گذاشته می‌شود.

ابزارهای نگهداشت، بازرسی و ممیزی

برای تضمین سلامت، ایمنی و حفظ محیط زیست، یکپارچگی تجهیزات کارخانه باید حفظ شود. بنابراین، سازمان ها باید نوعی سیستم مدیریت نگهداشت ایجاد کنند که یک نظام بازرسی و نگهداری و تعمیرات مؤثر ارائه می‌کند. بدین ترتیب، از طریق این نظام درکی بهتر از شرایط دارایی فراهم می‌شود، قابلیت اطمینان دارایی بهبود می‌یابد، مکانیزم‌های خرابی شناسایی می‌شود و نواحی مورد نظر برای تعمیر مشخص می‌گردد. هدف این برنامه‌ها باید بهبود یکپارچگی و قابلیت اطمینان تجهیزات و تضمین تطابق با ایمنی فرایند و مقررات بهداشت، ایمنی و محیط زیست باشد.

ممیزی‌های دوره‌ای موانع محافظتی مهمی هستند، چرا که عملکرد سیستم مدیریت یکپارچگی به‌کاررفته در مقابل ویژگی‌های تعیین‌شده را تأیید و ارزیابی می‌کنند. ممیزی مؤثر جنبه‌های زیادی شامل موارد زیر را پوشش می‌دهد:

تضمین انسجام پیاده‌سازی فرایند و شیوه‌ها.

بررسی شایستگی کارکنان.

تعریف هر نوع عدم تطابق با سیستم.

ارائهٔ ابزاری برای بهبود پیوسته، که برای بهبود تأثیرگذاری و کارامدی برنامهٔ مدیریت یکپارچگی دارایی (AIM) ضروری است.

ابزار مدیریت تغییر (MOC)

اصلاحات و تغییرات در دارایی‌ها اتفاقاتی معمول در چرخهٔ عمر دارایی‌ها محسوب می‌شوند. مؤسسهٔ انرژی بریتانیا (۲۰۱۵) توضیح می‌دهد که ایجاد تغییر و عدم مدیریت مناسب آن تغییر می‌تواند تأثیر منفی قابل توجهی بر سایر حوزه‌های عملیاتی داشته باشد که ریسک‌های جدید یا ناشناخته‌ای را بر دارایی‌ها تحمیل کرده و باعث افزایش مشکلات یکپارچگی می‌شود. بنابراین، همهٔ تغییرات باید از طریق فرایند قدرتمند MOC شناسایی، ارزیابی و مدیریت شوند. نمونه‌هایی از تغییراتی که سیستم MOC قادر به مدیریت آن‌ها است عبارتند از: تغییرات تجهیزات، تغییرات عملیات و رویه های عملیاتی، تغییرات مواد و محصولات، تغییرات کارکنان و مهارت ها، تغییرات سازمان و ساختار مدیریت، تغییرات نرم افزاری، طراحی‌ها و مشخصات، تغییرات کدها و استانداردها، و تغییرات برنامه‌های بازرسی و نگهداشت. در بخش دوم نمونه ای از تاثیر فقدان ابزارهای فوق بر یکپارچگی یک تجهیز واقعی ارائه خواهد شد.


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