اندازه‌گیری شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات و اطمینان از سلامت و عملکرد تجهیزات

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اندازه‌گیری شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات و اطمینان از سلامت و عملکرد تجهیزات



با توجه به گفته جان کمبل و جیمز پیکنل در کتاب آپتایم (Uptime) یکی از شاخص‌های مهم در ارزیابی عملکرد تجهیز، دسترس‌پذیری است که به‌صورت عملکرد صحیح و بدون توقف تجهیز در یک بازه معین تعریف می‌شود. محاسبه شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات به سازمان امکان می‌دهد تا تجهیزاتش را کنترل و از هزینه‌های بالای وارده در اثر خرابی و ازکارافتادگی ناگهانی تجهیز جلوگیری ‌کند. شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات باید هر 6 ماه جهت اطمینان از عملکرد تجهیز محاسبه گردد.

استفاده از هر تجهيزی منوط به آماده به ‌کار بودن آن تجهیز است، لذا تدوین شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات جهت تحت کنترل داشتن سلامت تجهیزات و خارج از سرویس فنی آن‌ها، امری ضروری به نظر می‌رسد.


 Availability یا دسترس‌پذیری تجهیزات

دسترس پذیری، مقدار زمانی است که یک تجهیز یا دارایی در صورت نیاز با توجه به زمان تعریف شده مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد و یا آماده به کار است. در واقع Availability نشان‌دهنده این موضوع است که به چه میزان تجهیزات در زمان نیاز در دسترس هستند. به‌طور معمول این تعریف مطابق با زیر به‌عنوان یک‌درصدی از کل زمان موجود، بیان می‌شود:

۱۰۰* زمان کل(ساعت) / زمان موجود(ساعت) یا زمان آپتایم= دسترس پذیری (ساعت)

زمان کل: با توجه به این تعریف زمان کل یا زمان تقویمی برای تجهیزاتی که قادر به فعالیت ۲۴ ساعته در روز به‌صورت هفتگی را داشته باشند، معمولاً ۷۷۶۰ ساعت در سال است. معمولاً برای سازمان‌هایی که به‌صورت ۱ شیفت یا ۲ شیفت در روز کار می‌کنند، این سؤال مطرح می‌شود که آیا زمان کل برای آن‌ها هم به همین ترتیب محاسبه می‌شود و یا به شکل دیگر ترتیب اثر داده می‌شود. جواب این است که میزان زمان کل یا تقویمی بر اساس ساعت کاری تقویمی سازمان می‌باشد. مثلاً سازمانی که روزانه ۱۲ ساعت در حال کار است و پنج‌شنبه‌ها و جمعه‌ها تعطیل است، زمان کل آن برابر ۳۱۲۰ ساعت در سال است. نکته مهم در این است که اگر نگهداری و تعمیرات در این سازمان‌ها در طول تعطیلات آخر هفته انجام شود، این زمان به‌عنوان ‌زمان غیرقابل‌ قبول در نظر گرفته می‌شود و در محاسبه دسترس پذیری یا Availability ترتیب اثر داده نخواهد شد.


زمان موجود یا آپتایم: با توجه به تعریف فوق زمان موجود برابر است بازمان تقویم کاری منهای زمان‌های خاموشی. همان طور که در فرمول محاسبه آورده شده به زمان موجود، نیز آپتایم گفته می‌شود.

زمان خاموشی یا Downtime، عمدتاً از دو نوع است: توقفات برنامه‌ریزی‌شده و توقفات برنامه‌ریزی‌نشده


توقفات برنامه‌ریزی‌شده می‌تواند زمان برنامه‌ریزی‌شده برای فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات پیشگیرانه، نگهداری و تعمیرات پیشبینانه یا سایر فعالیت‌های عملیاتی برنامه‌ریزی‌شده را شامل شود. توقفات برنامه‌ریزی نشده نیز می‌تواند به علت خرابی‌های تجهیز و وقفه‌های برنامه‌ریزی نشده تولید باشد. بنابراین بر اساس تعاریف ارائه‌شده:


۱۰۰*( زمان کل(ساعت) / (خاموشی‌های برنامه‌ریزی‌شده+خاموشی‌های برنامه‌ریزی نشده)-زمان کل)= دسترس پذیری


قابلیت دسترس پذیری عملیاتی و فنی



قابلیت دسترسی یا دسترس پذیری عملیاتی

دسترس پذیری عملیاتی (Operational Availability) درصد زمان موجود فعالیت تجهیزات است. هنگامی‌که همه فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات برنامه ­ریزی شده و نشده در زمان ازکارافتادگی لحاظ می‌شود. در واقع با این تعریف زمان‌های خاموشی شامل زمان‌های خاموشی برنامه‌ریزی‌شده و برنامه‌ریزی نشده ناشی از فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات می‌شود و در اینجا Downtime یا زمان خاموشی ناشی از توقفات تولید (برنامه‌ای و غیر برنامه‌ای) را در نظر نمی‌گیریم.

یکی از بهترین مراجعی که در حوزه جمع آوری داده‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات تجهیزات استفاده شده، استاندارد گردآوری داده‌های قابلیت اطمینان تجهیزات در صنایع نفت و گاز و پتروشیمی (ISO 14224: 2016) است. استاندارد ایزو 14224 بیان می‌کند که شاخص فوق به ‌طور معمول برای سطح تجهیزات قابل‌ محاسبه و ردیابی است. استاندراد ایزو 14224 هدف از محاسبه و تحلیل شاخص دسترس پذیری عملیاتی یا Operational Availability را نشان دادن تأثیر زمان فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات بر روی زمان مورد نیاز برای تولید در یک دوره زمانی مشخص تعریف کرده است. این شاخص بیان‌گر این است که جهت افزایش دسترسی تجهیزات لازم است زمان‌های توقف برنامه‌ریزی‌شده را زیر نظر بگیریم و با توجه به حفظ، نگهداری و افزایش قابلیت ‌اطمینان تجهیزات، فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات برنامه ریزی شده را بهینه کنیم و زمان‌های توقف فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات برنامه‌ریزی‌شده را که بر روی زمان تولید اثر مستقیم دارند را کاهش دهیم.

قابلیت دسترسی یا دسترس پذیری فنی

دسترس پذیری فنی (Technical Availability)، درصد زمان موجود فعالیت تجهیزات است، هنگامی‌که همه فعالیت نگهداری و تعمیرات واکنشی در زمان ازکارافتادگی لحاظ می‌شود. در حقیقت با این تعریف زمان‌های خاموشی شامل زمان‌های خاموشی برنامه‌ریزی نشده ناشی از خرابی تجهیز در نظر گرفته می­‌شود. در اینجا علاوه بر عدم تأثیر خاموشی‌های برنامه‌ریزی‌شده و برنامه‌ریزی نشده تولید، زمان‌های خاموشی برنامه‌ریزی‌شده نگهداری و تعمیرات نیز در محاسبه شاخص Technical Availability منظور نمی‌شود.

استاندارد ایزو 14224 نیز این شاخص را مانند قابلیت دسترسی عملیاتی برای سطح تجهیزات قابل‌ محاسبه و ردیابی می‌داند و نیز هدف از محاسبه و تحلیل این شاخص را مشخص کردن تأثیر زمان فعالیت‌های نگهداری و تعمیرات برنامه‌ریزی نشده بر روی زمان مورد نیاز برای تولید در یک دوره زمانی مشخص، تعریف کرده است.


چگونه از شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات استفاده می‌شود؟

بخش عملیاتی سازمان به‌طور مستقیم از دسترس‌پذیری تجهیزات تأثیر می‌پذیرد. هنگامی که تجهیزات در حد امکان کار می‌کنند، بدین معنی است که محصولات بیشتری تولید می‌شود و پول بیشتری نیز به دست می‌آید. به عبارت دیگر، هنگامی ‌که میزان در دسترس بودن سیستم بالا باشد، درآمد نیز احتمالاً رشد خواهد کرد.

از آنجا که در دسترس بودن تجهیزات به بهره‌­وری مالی سازمان گره خورده است، معمولاً  از شاخص دسترسی ­پذیری به عنوان یک معیار اصلی تجارت در سازمان‌های تولیدی استفاده می‌شود. با این حال، به شدت با کارهایی که چندین بخش دیگر انجام می‌دهند، از جمله تعمیر و نگهداری، ارتباط دارد. در دسترس بودن از قابلیت اطمینان تجهیز تأثیر می‌­پذیرد، به همان ترتیب قابلیت اطمینان نیز تحت تأثیر فرایندها و ابزارهای تیم نگهداری قرار دارد. بنابراین، می‌­توان از شاخص آماده به کاری تجهیزات برای اندازه‌گیری و بررسی اثربخشی فرایندها و تجهیزات و چگونگی بهبود آن‌ها استفاده کرد.


مطالب مرتبط

شاخص های نگهداری و تعمیرات
شاخص های نگهداری و تعمیرات
شاخص سلامت تجهیزات
شاخص سلامت تجهیزات
دوره آموزشی شاخص های نگهداری و تعمیرات
دوره آموزشی شاخص های نگهداری و تعمیرات

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